Bağcılar mutlu son Bahçelievler mutlu son Bakırköy mutlu son Bandırma mutlu son Başakşehir mutlu son Başiskele mutlu son Batıkent mutlu son Bayraklı mutlu son Bayrampaşa mutlu son Belek mutlu son Bergama mutlu son Beşiktaş mutlu son Beykoz mutlu son Beylikdüzü mutlu son Beyoğlu mutlu son Beypazarı mutlu son Beyşehir mutlu son Biga mutlu son Bilecik mutlu son Bodrum mutlu son Bornova mutlu son Buca mutlu son Büyükçekmece mutlu son Çan mutlu son Canik mutlu son Çankaya mutlu son Çarşamba mutlu son Çatalca mutlu son Çaycuma mutlu son Çayırova mutlu son escort Çanakkale oral escort Çorum oral escort Denizli oral escort Düzce oral escort Edirne oral escort Erzurum oral escort Eskişehir oral escort Gaziantep oral escort Giresun oral escort Hatay oral escort Beyşehir oral escort Biga oral escort Bigadiç oral escort Birecik oral escort Bodrum oral escort Bornova oral escort Bosna oral escort Boyabat oral escort Buca oral escort Bulancak oral escort Bünyan oral escort Burhaniye oral escort Büyükçekmece oral escort Çan oral escort Canik oral escort Çankaya oral escort Çarşamba oral escort Çatalca oral escort Çayeli oral escort Çekmeköy oral escort Çerkezköy oral escort Çeşme oral escort Ceyhan oral escort Çiğli oral escort Çihanbeyli oral escort Çine oral escort Çivril oral escort Çorlu oral escort Çubuk oral escort Çukurova oral escort Çumra oral escort Dalaman oral escort Darıca oral escort Davutlar oral escort Demetevler oral escort Develi oral escort Didim oral escort Dikili oral escort Dinar oral escort Doğanşehir oral escort Dörtyol oral escort Döşemealtı oral escort Dulkadiroğlu oral escort Düziçi oral escort Edremit oral escort Efeler oral escort Elbistan oral escort Elmadağ oral escort Elmalı oral escort Emirdağ oral escort istanbul mutlu son ankara mutlu son izmir mutlu son bursa mutlu son antalya mutlu son adana mutlu son konya mutlu son şanlıurfa mutlu son gaziantep mutlu son kocaeli mutlu son mersin mutlu son diyarbakır mutlu son hatay mutlu son manisa mutlu son kayseri mutlu son samsun mutlu son balıkesir mutlu son maraş mutlu son van mutlu son aydın mutlu son tekirdağ mutlu son sakarya mutlu son denizli mutlu son muğla mutlu son Tekirdağ mutlu son Adana mutlu son Mersin mutlu son Bursa mutlu son Muğla mutlu son Balıkesir mutlu son Kocaeli mutlu son İstanbul mutlu son Ankara mutlu son Antalya mutlu son İzmir mutlu son Denizli mutlu son Çanakkale mutlu son Sakarya mutlu son Manisa mutlu son Malatya mutlu son Yalova mutlu son Sivas mutlu son Tokat mutlu son Kayseri mutlu son Trabzon mutlu son Aydın mutlu son Elazığ mutlu son Afyon mutlu son Kütahya mutlu son Ordu mutlu son Eskişehir mutlu son Gaziantep mutlu son bağcılar mutlu son bahçelievler mutlu son esenler mutlu son esenyurt mutlu son kadıköy mutlu son kağıthane mutlu son kartal mutlu son küçükçekmece mutlu son maltepe mutlu son pendik mutlu son sultangazi mutlu son ümraniye mutlu son üsküdar mutlu son aliağa mutlu son alsancak mutlu son bayraklı mutlu son bornova mutlu son buca mutlu son çeşme mutlu son çiğli mutlu son gaziemir mutlu son karşıyaka mutlu son konak mutlu son menemen mutlu son ödemiş mutlu son torbalı mutlu son çankaya mutlu son keçiören mutlu son mamak mutlu son polatlı mutlu son sincan mutlu son alanya mutlu son belek mutlu son kaş mutlu son kemer mutlu son korkuteli mutlu son lara mutlu son manavgat mutlu son serik mutlu son side mutlu son didim mutlu son efeler mutlu son kuşadası mutlu son nazilli mutlu son altıeylül mutlu son bandırma mutlu son edremit mutlu son karesi mutlu son susurluk mutlu son gemlik mutlu son gürsu mutlu son inegöl mutlu son mudanya mutlu son nilüfer mutlu son osmangazi mutlu son yıldırım mutlu son biga mutlu son çan mutlu son gelibolu mutlu son adıyaman mutlu son afyon mutlu son ağrı mutlu son aksaray mutlu son amasya mutlu son ardahan mutlu son artvin mutlu son bartın mutlu son batman mutlu son bayburt mutlu son bilecik mutlu son bingöl mutlu son bitlis mutlu son bolu mutlu son burdur mutlu son çanakkale mutlu son çankırı mutlu son çorum mutlu son düzce mutlu son edirne mutlu son elazığ mutlu son erzincan mutlu son erzurum mutlu son eskişehir mutlu son giresun mutlu son gümüşhane mutlu son ığdır mutlu son ısparta mutlu son karabük mutlu son karaman mutlu son kastamonu mutlu son kilis mutlu son kırıkkale mutlu son kırklareli mutlu son kırşehir mutlu son uşak mutlu son kütahya mutlu son malatya mutlu son mardin mutlu son nevşehir mutlu son niğde mutlu son ordu mutlu son trabzon mutlu son osmaniye mutlu son rize mutlu son siirt mutlu son sinop mutlu son sivas mutlu son tokat mutlu son karahayıt mutlu son pamukkale mutlu son nizip mutlu son şahinbey mutlu son şehitkamil mutlu son antakya mutlu son defne mutlu son iskenderun mutlu son darıca mutlu son gebze mutlu son gölcük mutlu son izmit mutlu son körfez mutlu son akşehir mutlu son beyşehir mutlu son ereğli mutlu son karatay mutlu son meram mutlu son selçuklu mutlu son akhisar mutlu son alaşehir mutlu son soma mutlu son turgutlu mutlu son akdeniz mutlu son anamur mutlu son erdemli mutlu son mezitli mutlu son silifke mutlu son tarsus mutlu son toroslar mutlu son yenişehir mutlu son bodrum mutlu son dalaman mutlu son fethiye mutlu son köyceğiz mutlu son marmaris mutlu son menteşe mutlu son milas mutlu son adapazarı mutlu son serdivan mutlu son atakum mutlu son çarşamba mutlu son ilkadım mutlu son eyyübiye mutlu son siverek mutlu son viranşehir mutlu son çerkezköy mutlu son çorlu mutlu son erbaa mutlu son escort Mersin elit escort İzmir elit escort Ankara elit escort Antalya elit escort Bursa elit escort Gaziantep elit escort Denizli elit escort Adana elit escort Hatay elit escort Samsun elit escort Kocaeli elit escort Konya elit escort İstanbul elit escort Eskişehir elit escort Malatya elit escort Kayseri elit escort Sakarya elit escort Balıkesir elit escort Çanakkale elit escort Aydın elit escort Muğla elit escort Tekirdağ elit escort Yalova elit escort Trabzon elit escort Sivas elit escort Ordu elit escort Maraş elit escort Manisa elit escort Tokat elit escort Rize elit escort Amasya elit escort Ümraniye elit escort Üsküdar elit escort Zeytinburnu elit escort Çeşme elit escort Sincan elit escort Gaziemir elit escort İskenderun elit escort Buca elit escort Çubuk elit escort Marmaris elit escort Torbalı elit escort Haymana elit escort Kepez elit escort Osmangazi elit escort Bağcılar elit escort Muratpaşa elit escort Görükle elit escort Avcılar elit escort Darıca elit escort Çumra elit escort Anamur elit escort Çarşamba elit escort Ulus elit escort Kaş elit escort Gürsu elit escort Güngören elit escort Mut elit escort Kadıköy elit escort İznik elit escort Serik elit escort Menemen elit escort Aksu elit escort Kağıthane elit escort Kartal elit escort Maltepe elit escort Tire elit escort Finike elit escort Pendik elit escort Sarıyer elit escort Şişli elit escort Sultangazi elit escort Tuzla elit escort Konyaaltı elit escort Seyhan elit escort Melikgazi elit escort Ödemiş elit escort Mamak elit escort Kemer elit escort 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escort Köyceğiz elit escort Siverek elit escort Toroslar elit escort Menteşe elit escort Kestel elit escort Yenişehir elit escort Yatağan elit escort Urla elit escort Korkuteli elit escort Kumluca elit escort Karacabey elit escort Alanya elit escort Manavgat elit escort Fethiye elit escort Kemer elit escort Didim elit escort Çorum elit escort Düzce elit escort Erzurum elit escort Kırklareli elit escort Kilis elit escort Kars elit escort Karabük elit escort Kırıkkale elit escort Mardin elit escort Kırşehir elit escort Muş elit escort Kastamonu elit escort Nevşehir elit escort Ardahan elit escort Bartın elit escort Karaman elit escort Siirt elit escort Batman elit escort Bayburt elit escort Uşak elit escort Igdır elit escort Sinop elit escort Şırnak elit escort Adıyaman elit escort Ağri elit escort Bitlis elit escort Gümüşhane elit escort Hakkari elit escort Bingöl elit escort Safranbolu elit escort Boyabat elit escort Kızıltepe elit escort Üzümlü elit escort Bucak elit escort Kadirli 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Mucur elit escort Babaeski elit escort Şehitkamil elit escort Espiye elit escort Kağızman elit escort Yahşihan elit escort Develi elit escort Doğanşehir elit escort Afşin elit escort Alaşehir elit escort Malazgirt elit escort Fatsa elit escort Ürgüp elit escort Akyazı elit escort Eyyübiye elit escort Şarkışla elit escort Araklı elit escort Niksar elit escort Simav elit escort Ergene elit escort Fındıklı elit escort Nazilli elit escort Taşova elit escort Susurluk elit escort Çan elit escort Mudurnu elit escort Defne elit escort Kozan elit escort Sandıklı elit escort Yahyalı elit escort Patnos elit escort Kahta elit escort Pamukkale elit escort Ergani elit escort Oltu elit escort Nizip elit escort Görele elit escort Sarıkamış elit escort Yeşilyurt elit escort Dulkadiroğlu elit escort Kırkağaç elit escort Varto elit escort Fethiye elit escort Kumru elit escort Erenler elit escort Akçakale elit escort Suşehri elit escort Of elit escort Turhal elit escort Derince elit escort Ereğli elit escort Erdemli elit escort Bafra elit escort Kapaklı elit escort Pazar elit escort Davutlar elit escort Altıeylül elit escort Ayvacık elit escort Dörtyol elit escort Sarıçam elit escort Sur elit escort Palandöken elit escort Nurdağı elit escort Tirebolu elit escort Zile elit escort Ünye elit escort Selim elit escort kuşadası escort çorlu escort gebze escort eyyubiye escort karatay escort çekmeköy escort eyupsultan escort arnavutköy escort lüleburgaz escort çayeli escort yüksekova escort safranbolu escort bozüyük escort sincan escort etimesgut escort yenimahalle escort buca escort karşıyaka escort bornova escort çiğli escort keçiören escort güngören escort kemer escort sancaktepe escort beyoğlu escort anamur escort beykoz escort büyükçekmece escort bakırköy escort zeytinburnu escort başakşehir escort menteşe escort arsuz escort elbistan escort akşehir escort vezirköprü escort reyhanlı escort çayırova escort kartepe escort başiskele escort nizip escort menderes escort aliağa escort polatlı escort battalgazi escort yeşilyurt escort fatsa escort erbaa escort şarkışla escort sivas merkez escort kahta escort kepez escort konyaaltı escort keşan escort kadirli escort biga escort zonguldak ereğli escort çaycuma escort yakutiye escort palandöken escort Ünye escort akçaabat escort milas escort serdivan escort akyazı escort Çerkezköy escort kapaklı escort nazilli escort söke escort erciş escort tuşba escort van edremit escort karesi escort altıeylül escort bandırma escort Çarşamba escort akhisar escort turgutlu escort Şehzadeler escort salihli escort soma escort alaşehir escort defne escort dörtyol escort samandağ escort mersin yenişehir escort erdemli escort körfez escort gölcük escort derince escort sarıçam escort ceyhan escort kozan escort serik escort gemlik escort mudanya escort gölbaşı escort pursaklar escort bergama escort ödemiş escort gaziemir escort menemen escort torbalı escort

Health and Fitness

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

What is ARMD

Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is an acquired retinal degeneration that significantly impairs central vision as a result of both non-neovascular (abnormalities of the drusen and retinal pigment epithelium) and neovascular derangements (choroidal neovascular membrane formation). Subretinal fibrosis, bleeding beneath the retina or behind the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and serous fluid may all be signs of advanced illness. Although environmental, dietary, and developmental (i.e., aging) mechanisms combine to alter the degeneration seen in the macula, a genetic component is postulated given its propensity to people of European ancestry. There is a great need for innovative medicines due to recently implicated biochemical pathways and the lack of effective treatments for the majority of armds (i.e., dry ARMD).

The Two Forms of AMD

Dry AMD

This type is rather common. Approximately 80% (8 out of 10) of AMD patients have dry form. Age-related macula thinning and the development of microscopic protein aggregates known as drusen are symptoms of dry AMD. Your central vision gradually fades. Dry AMD cannot yet be treated.

Wet AMD

Although less frequent, this variety is significantly more dangerous. When new, aberrant blood vessels develop behind the retina, it is called wet AMD. The macula may get scarred as a result of these arteries leaking blood or other fluids. Wet AMD causes visual loss more quickly than dry AMD.

AMD Signs and Symptoms 

Dry AMD

Most patients still have enough vision to read and drive despite the gradual, painless loss of central vision. Scotomas, or central blind patches, typically appear late in the course of the illness and can occasionally be severe. Typically, symptoms are bilateral.

The following alterations are caused by funduscopic changes:

  • Retinal pigment epithelium changes
  • Drusen
  • Areas of chorioretinal atrophy

Wet AMD

Wet AMD is more common when vision loss occurs suddenly, typically spanning days to weeks. Visual distortion, such as a central blind spot (scotoma) or curving of straight lines, is frequently the initial symptom (metamorphopsia).

Color and peripheral vision are typically unaffected; nevertheless, if AMD is left untreated, the patient runs the risk of become legally blind (vision of 20/200 or less) in the affected eye. Wet AMD symptoms are frequently unilateral since it typically only affects one eye at a time.

The following alterations are caused by funduscopic changes:

  • Localized retinal elevation caused by subretinal fluid
  • Retinal swelling
  • Discoloration under the macula that is gray-green
  • Macula exudates or exudates nearby
  • Retinal pigment epithelium separation (visible as an area of retinal elevation)
  • Subretinal bleeding in or near the macula.

Diagnosis & Tests

When you see our best eye doctor (at bharti eye foundation) for a standard eye exam and have your eyes dilated, they can screen you for age-related macular degeneration. An early diagnosis will allow you to begin therapy, which could delay certain symptoms or lessen their severity.

Tests

Your retina—a layer of tissue at the back of your eye that processes light—will be examined, along with your eyesight and eye pressure. Under the retina, they’ll search for drusen, which are small yellow deposits. It’s a typical early indication of the sickness. Your physician might also ask you to examine an Amsler grid, which is a checkerboard-like pattern made up of straight lines.

Macular degeneration may be indicated if you notice that some of the lines are absent or appear to be wavy.

Tests If our doctor suspects you have age-related macular degeneration, they might recommend one or both of the following tests:

  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT). A magnified 3D image of your retina may be seen in this unique photograph. Using this technique, your doctor can determine whether the retinal layers are misaligned. Additionally, whether you underwent laser or injectable therapy, they can determine whether the edema is becoming better or worse.
  • Imaging with fluorescein. In this treatment, a dye is injected into a vein in your arm by your doctor.

They capture images as the dye enters your eye and travels through the retina’s blood vessels. Images of the macula, a small region near the center of your retina, will reveal new veins or vessels that are leaking blood or fluid.

Prevention

When you visit your doctor for an annual eye exam and a dilated exam, they can examine your eyes for age-related macular degeneration.

An early diagnosis will allow you to begin therapy, which could delay certain symptoms or lessen their severity.

In addition to testing your eyesight, they’ll look at your retina, a layer of tissue at the back of your eye that deals with light. Under the retina, they’ll search for drusen, which are small yellow deposits.

It’s a typical early indication of the sickness. Your physician might also ask you to examine an Amsler grid, which is a checkerboard-like pattern made up of straight lines. Macular degeneration may be indicated if you notice that some of the lines are absent or appear to be wavy.

Exams If our best eye doctor suspects you have age-related macular degeneration, they might recommend one or both of the following tests:

  • With optical coherence tomography (OCT). A magnified 3D image of your retina may be seen in this unique photograph. Using this technique, your doctor can determine whether the retinal layers are misaligned. Additionally, whether you underwent laser or injectable therapy, they can determine whether the edema is becoming better or worse.
  • Fluorescein angiography.  In this treatment, a dye is injected into a vein in your arm by your doctor. They capture images as the dye enters your eye and travels through the retina’s blood vessels. Images of the macula, a sliver of the retina at its center, will reveal new arteries or vessels that are dripping blood or fluid

Read More:

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Types of Refractive Error | Bharti Eye Foundation

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